[2] 3.11.2oo4 sampling a open source


[snd] 2003 Madonna Remix Project [to be finished]    


[*] 2002 Lev Manovich in Generation Flash: "What was referred in post-modern times as quoting, appropriation, and pastiche no longer needs any special name. Now this is simply the basic logic of cultural production: download images, code, shapes, scripts, etc.; modify them, and then paste the new works online - send them into circulation."    


[phil] 2001 Hacktivist group „‘knowledge’ is only a form of plagiarism – endless exchange of information and influences.“  


[snd] 1995 John Oswald on Plexure album uses samples from 5000 hits from 1000 authors.  


[snd] 1991 Christian Marclay organizes the concert for 100 gramophones.  


[snd] 1976 The Residents on their second released album, Third Reich and Roll, copy well known pop songs to one track of a four-track tape, to which they then play along (transposed, modulated, distorted, commented on, intensified), thus building up tracks.    


[snd] 1971 Richard Trythall's Hommagio a Jerry Lee Lewis is plundered from various recordings of JL Lewis's Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin' On.  


[snd] 1970 Jamaican dub producers working in the late 1960s and early 1970s, such as Lee Perry, King Tubby, and Scientist make an art form out of taking prerecorded rhythm tracks and rearranging them into a piece of music, a new version as they call it.    


[art] 1960 Andy Warhol paints Campbell's Soup Cans. Asked why, he replies, "because I used to drink (soup). I used to have the same lunch every day for 20 years." His first paintings with oil on canvas include a Coca-Cola bottle, an icebox, a can of Del Monte peach halves, a 'before and after' newspaper advertisement for a nose job, a television set, and an advertisement for a hot-water heater.  


[film] 1931 With the end of the civil war, the art?icas vanguards sovi?cas start to materialize the prophecies of the futuristas, breaching with id? of separate art of the life. They invest in creates? of functional objects that could be produced em.massa for the state ind?rias. This movement, that re? artists and writers, group themselves later first around the Inchuk (Institute of Art?ica Culture) and in magazine LEF. V?os of these artists, amongst them Alexandra Exter, Vladimir Tatlin, V?ara Stiepanova and Liubov Popova, had drawn the most varied suits for produ? em.massa. Others adaptaram its suprematistas paintings for confec? of cer?cas produced by the F?ica de State Porcelana, with the objective of establishing a "universal harmony in the decorative work". The majority of these products aimed at the market of exports? of fine objects, but some of them had been produced em.massa for the Russian domestic market.  


[snd] 1922 Darius Milhaud (1922), Laszlo Moholy-Nagy at the Boohoos (1923) and Edgard Varies (1936) start to experiment with disc manipulations, but none eventually employs them in a final work.  


[art] 1914 Marcel Duchamp exhibits the bottle rack, a work in which, for the first time, a complete unmodified object is simply imported whole into an 'art space'.  


[*] 600 In Ireland, Christianity is a fairly recent import, and almost all of the sacred manuscripts are copies. So, when St Columba borrows a manuscript of the Latin Psalter from Finnian of Druim Finn, it is not an unusual step for Columba to make a copy. Finnian, the original 'owner,' protests, demanding both his lent manuscript and the new copy back saying: "As the calf belongs to the cow, so the copy belongs to its book." At the end St Columba wins and holds on to his copy of the Gospels.  


[*] 2002 The Hamburg Foundation for the Advancement of Science and Culture, presided by Jan Philipp Reemtsma sues Sebastian Luetgert, founder of, referring to the illegal distribution of essays Jargon der Eigentlichkeit and Fascism and Anti-Semitic Propaganda by Theodor Adorno copyrighted by HFASC asking 2330 Euro for the damages and legal fees. After year and a half of online community protests and donations, the debt is paid accompanied by the letter to Reemtsma, in which Luetgert says, that the "foundation's 'intellectual property' has been returned to the public domain. This first-of-its-kind protest signals a refusal to let copyright holders and lawyers censor the very works they pretend to protect and control what the public can archive or read.."    


[art] 2001 in life_sharing enable online access to their harddisk via homepage, allowing free rework and distribution of its content.    


[snd] 1997 Rasa Smite and Raitis Smits start to work with sound-loops mixing the audio data streamed by various users through internet. „Open space of internet is more about communicating and processing than about producing and exhibiting.“  


[*] 1992 Linus Torvalds changes the license of his Linux, the UNIX-compatible kernel, to GNU GPL. Linux is further developed by various programmers over the Internet and combined with the GNU system, which has been missing its own kernel, resulting in a fully functional free operating system.    


[*] 1983 Richard Stallman quits his job at MIT and in GNU Manifesto (GNU being acronym for "GNU's Not Unix") announces the goal of collaborative creation of a complete free operating system. Software is to be released under GNU General Public License (GPL), remaining free for all users "to run, copy, modify and distribute", idea also known as copyleft.    


[snd] 1974 The Residents release 7 inch single titled Beyond The Valley Of A Day In The Life and subtitled The Residents Play The Beatles/The Beatles Play The Residents. it comes packaged as an art object in a numbered, limited edition and hand-silkscreened cover and is sold to a rock public. one side of this single was a cover version of The Beatles song Flying. the other side is wholy assembled from extracts dubbed off Beatles records, looped, multitracked, composed with razor blades and tape.    


[snd] 1970 Karlheinz Stockhausen for his Beethoven Anniversary recording, Opus, prepares tapes of fragments of Beethoven's music which ran continuously throughout the performance of the piece. Each player is allowed open and shut his own loudspeaker at will, and instantaneously to 'develop' what he heard instrumentally (condense, extend, transpose, modulate, synchronise, imitate, distort).  


[snd] 1961 James Tenney's Collage No.1 (Blue Suede) record is a result of the physical and electrical manipulation of Elvis Presley's gramophone record Blue Suede Shoes. No copyright difficulties.  


[snd] 1939 John Cage in Imaginary Landscape No.l brings a gramophone record into a public performance as an instrument. he uses only test tones and the effect of speed changes.  


[snd] 1930 Walter Ruttman's Weekend is a symphony of sound, speech-fragments and silence perfected by cutting and mixing.  


[snd] 1920 At a Dada event Stephan Wolpe uses eight gramophones to play records at widely different speeds simultaneously.  


[*] 1876 Ralph Waldo Emerson writes in Letters and Social Aims: Quotation and Originality: "Our country, our customs, laws, our ambitions, and our notions of fit and fair - all these we never made, we found them ready made; we but quote them."