[1] 14.10.2oo4 simulakrá a hyperrealita


[socio] 2004 EuroMayDay, the demonstration of "eco/media activism and metropolitan/unionist radicalism in one" takes place in Milan and Barcelona on May 1st. Parallely, internet users join the virtual parade on the website, taking the heterogenous mass, precariat, to the global dimension.    


[film] 1998 In Barry Levinson's Wag the Dog, American president in order to conceal his affair with a young scout hires the Hollywood director, who produces the illusory war in Albania for media.  


[socio] 1993 Indoor ski slope SnowDome Adelaide Snow & Ice opens in Thebarton, Adelaide, Australia. This world's first SSAWS (acronym for Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter: Snow) maintains a climate controlled environment in which snow is manufactured using a snow cannon, enabling year-round skiing on a snow slope 400ft (120m) long and 40ft (19m) wide.    


[socio] 1992 Benetton clothes corporation uses the Therese Flarer's photography of David Kirby, the AIDS-patient lying in a dead-bed accompanied by a mourning family, and Patrick Robert's photo of a black soldier with a machine rifle over his back, holding the white bone, in an institutional campaign.  


[*] 1991 Howard Rheingold in Virtual Reality's chapter entitled Teledildonics imparts his fantasies of having a virtual reality sexual experience via the Internet but also laments the obstacles in making a cybersex suit a reality. Teledildonics (cybersex) is the integration of telepresence with sex. Both terms are used for the remote mutual masturbation via MUD, IRC, ICQ, or SMS, where the imagination of physical touch is transmitted over a data link between the participants.  


[socio] 1989 Benetton uses Oliviero Toscani's photography of a white child sucking the breast of a black woman in an institutional campaign. The italian company sells the clothes.  


[film] 1987 In Paul Verhoeven's Robocop, seriously injured Detroit policeman Murphy (Peter Weller) is brought back to life to fight the injustice as the half-human half-machine, cyborg.  


[socio] 1981 Jean Baudrillard in Simulacra and Simulation speaks about the paradigm shift from modern Sausserian signifier-signified / word-meaning / representation-reality duality where copy is still the copy of original. Baudrillard says, that in postmodern era, reproduction itself is original, that means there are no more originals and copies, copy is the copy of the copy, there is no reality/representation distinction, just signifier-signifier-signifier, with no beginning and no end. He coins the term simulacra, which don’t mirror/reproduce/imitate/copy the reality, but are reality itself and he calls this state simulacrum – the reality created by simulation, for which there is no original. Simulacra are constantly disseminated by mass media, so they are unavoidable and unescapable and create modes/codes to be inhabited by passive subjects/viewers as the only necessary reality – hyperreality.  


[socio] 1972 Pruitt-Igoe, St Louis, Missouri public housing project, is demolished by St. Louis Housing Authority. The project was commissioned as part of the post-WWII federal housing program, as an attempt to bring people back to the city, designed by architect Minoru Yamasaki (also author of World Trade Center) and built in 1956. The demolition is addressed as the death of international style of modern architecture, that promoted the buildings as the machines to live in.  


[phil] 1967 Jacques Derrida in his Of Grammatology states that the privileged logocentric terms (ie speech) have to be deconstructed via privileging their traditionally subordinate binary opposites (ie writing) in order to compensate their historical power imbalances. Other examples include presence over absence, identity over difference, fullness over emptiness, meaning over meaninglessness, mastery over submission, or life over death.  


[*] 1965 Gordon E Moore, a co-founder of Intel Corporation, outlines an empirical observation stating in effect that at our rate of technological development and advances in the semiconductor industry the complexity of integrated circuits doubles every 18 months. Moore's Law, although Moore never claimed the concept as a formal law, has eventually become a kind of self-fulfilling prophecy, driving both marketing and engineering departments crazy every 18 months.    


[socio] 1956 Southdale shopping mall opens in the Twin Cities suburb of Edina, Minnesota. The design is modeled by Victor Gruen after small town main streets in the USA, but placed entirely indoors, including shops, restaurants, coffee shops, sports & recreation facilities, post office, decorative lighting, fountains, tropical plants, and flowers. The 4-story 800,000 ft² (74,000 m²) center has 5,200 parking spaces and 72 spaces for tenants.    


[socio] 1941 Gangsters Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel and Meyer Lansky start to finance building of large hotels incorporating gambling casinos in Las Vegas. The city soon establishes as a mecca of entertainment due to the popularity of legalized gambling, availability of alcoholic beverages any time of the day and night, various forms and degrees of adult entertainment, and legalized prostitution in nearby counties.  


[*] 2000 Maxis Inc releases Will Wright's The Sims, strategic/simulation computer game. The player is in a complete control over his Sim, avatar's real-life activities such as sleeping, cooking, bathing, reading, exercising, working, paying bills, and socializing. The only real objective of the game is to organize the time of player's Sim to help him/her reach personal advancement goals. The Sims is said to be best-selling PC game in history. Extension packs include The Sims House Party, Hot Date, Vacation, Superstar, or Makin' Magic.    


[snd] 1994 The Beastie Boys, Caucasian 3-piece band, release the album Ill Communications. The music is built on hip hop rhythm and gangsta rap, the US ghetto residents' tradition of confessionaire on drugs, murders, gangs, sadism, violence on women, and police. The black culture is being zelaously adopted by the white suburbia adolescents struggling for the sense of identity, calling themselves the white niggers, wiggers.  


[socio] 1993 The world’s largest indoor water park Ocean Dome opens in a resort complex Seagaia located in Miyazaki, Kyushu Island, Japan. The all-weather dome with a retractable Teflon roof features simulated 466-foot-long beach (covered by artificial white sand made of marble) and waves as high as 2.5m, has a capacity of 10,000, and indoor air and water temperatures are constant year-round at 30c° and 28c°, respectively.    


[film] 1991 In Jonathan Demme's Silence of the Lambs, Dr Hannibal Lecter (Anthony Hopkins), a genial and charismatic sociopath psychiatrist and cannibal, is imprisoned as the only person able to locate his former client, Buffalo Bill, another mass murderer. The film is one out of three to get all 5 best awards in the Oscar history.  


[snd] 1990 Pop icon Madonna in her career takes upon the image of Marilyn Monroe (Who's That Girl? movie), Marlene Dietrich (clip Vogue), or a sadomasochistic pye-cat (book Sex).  


[*] 1989 Maxis Inc releases Will Wright's SimCity, a real-time strategy/simulation single-player computer game. The objective of game is to design and build a city, without specific goals to achieve. The player can mark land as being zoned as commercial, industrial, or residential, add buildings, change the tax rate, build a power grid, build transportation systems and many other actions, in order to enhance the city. Also, the player can face disasters: flooding, tornadoes, fires, riots, earthquakes, etc. Further game variations include SimEarth, SimFarm, SimTown, Streets of SimCity, SimCopter, SimAnt, SimIsle, SimPark, SimMars, and The Sims.    


[film] 1984 I n Jaes Cameron's Terminator, a cyborg, the    


[phil] 1972 Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari in The Thousand Plateaus introduce rhizome – organism which consists of interconnected living fibers, but with no central point, no particular origin, no definitive structure, no formative unity, no beginning and no end, just and-and-and. Rhizome is characteristic postmodern structure (ie internet), that replaced the modern structure of a tree, part of the coherent organic system which had grown vertically and steadily, having the beginning, middle and end (seed, trunk, branches) and progressing toward future.  


[phil] 1968 Roland Barthes in his essay The Death of the Author proposes that the readers create their own meanings with no regard on an intent of the author. Texts they use are therefore always dynamic, unstable and open to dubiousness.  


[socio] 1966 Jacques Lacan: every signifier leads only to another signifier. Uncoscious is continual, sliding and shifting chain of signifiers.  


[*] 1959 Fidel Castro takes control over Cuba via revolution. The regime promotes the symbols of revolution and socialism through masmedia, bilboards, graffiti, or local boards for defence of revolution, and keeps the island\'s residents in ongoing revolution till today.  


[socio] 1955 Disneyland opens south of Los Angeles on 180 acres area.