[3] 25.11.2oo4 virtuálna realita a hra


[sci] 2003 Georgi Japaridze introduces computability logic / formal theory of computability (as a parallel to classical logic / formal theory of truth), that treats games as foundational entities in their own right. He understands interactive computational problems as games played by a machine against the environment, their computability as existence of a machine that always wins the game, logical operators as operations on computational problems, and validity of a logical formula as being a scheme of "always computable" problems.    


[film] 2001 Cameron Crowe's Vanilla Sky remake of Alejandro Amenábar's Abre Los Ojos (Open Your Eyes) takes place in pop-cultural images constructed simulated reality of "lucid dream" sold to David Aames (Tom Cruise) by the Life Extension corporation. The company calls the product the "cryonic union of science and entertainment," when the subject's body is kept frozen, but the mind is left to roam free with no recollection of the subject's own death.  


[film] 1999 In Spike Jonze's Being John Malkovich, written by Charlie Kaufman, puppeteer Craig Schwartz discovers the door in the wall of an office transporting himself into the brain of actor John Malkovich for about 15 minutes. Schwartz eventually becomes adept at controlling Malkovich and resides in the body for several months before an ending in which he is absorbed into the body of the unborn baby of his (unrequitedly attractive) co-worker Maxine and Malkovich (conceived while Schwartz's wife Lotte was inside Malkovich).  


[film] 1997 eXistenZ in the David Cronenberg’s movie is the game-created reality which is inhibited by the player whose task is to follow the script being suggested by his/her subconsciousness.  


[socio] 1995 Sherry Turkle in Life on the Screen: "We have learned to take things at interface value. We are moving toward a culture of simulation in which people are increasingly comfortable with substituting representations of reality for the real [..] We join virtual communities that exist among people communicating on computer networks as well as communities in which we are physically present."    


[sci] 1993 Vernon Vinge collects his thoughts on singularity in the essay Technological Singularity claiming that "within thirty years, we will have the technological means to create superhuman intelligence. Shortly thereafter, the human era will be ended."    


[lit] 1984 In William Gibson's Neuromancer, the Matrix is a world within the world, a "global consensus-hallucination, the representation of every byte of data abstracted from the banks of every computer in the human system," computer network, the cyberspace. The hacker Case realizes that all of his activities are under control of far-reaching artificial intelligence, Neuromancer.  


[phil] 1963 Michael Dummett in his paper Realism uses the term anti-realism to describe any position involving either the denial of the objective reality of entities of a certain type or the insistence that we should be agnostic about their real existence. Thus, we may speak of anti-realism with respect to other minds, the past, the future, universals, mathematical entities (such as natural numbers), moral categories, the material world, or even thought.  


[sci] 1958 P Lorenzen introduces game semantics, an approach in logic that bases the concepts of truth or validity on games. He suggests that the meaning of a proposition should be specified by establishing the rules of treating it in a debate (game) between a proponent who asserts the proposition and an opponent who denies it. Numerous sorts of game semantics have been introduced and studied in logic since.    


[phil] -400 Plato uses allegory of the cave at the beginning of Book VII of The Republic.    


[film] 2002 In Spike Jonze's Adaptation, the screenwriter Charlie Kaufman (played by Nicolas Cage) is turning The Orchid Thief book into a screenplay, gradually drawning its author, and the main character -- orchid thief, into the story and his life itself. At one point in the movie, the Adaptation's and The Orchid Thief's scripts meet each other. The original Adaptation script is written by Charlie Kaufman.  


[film] 2000 Digital Playground's DVD Virtual Sex with Tera Patrick let the viewer simulate having first-person sex with a porn star.  


[film] 1999 In Wachowski brothers' Matrix, a young computer hacker Neo (Keanu Reeves) learns about the true nature of his "false" reality (Matrix) and gets invited by a band of rebels to their ship Nebukadnezzar in the "real world", the year 2199, when the last human city Zion is fighting a war against masters of Matrix, self-aware computer programs called agents. It turns out that the world which Neo has inhabited since birth, the Matrix, is an illusory simulated reality construct of the world of 1999, developed by the machines to keep the human population docile whilst they are used as power plants to keep the computers running.  


[socio] 1997 Slavoj Zizek in Cyberspace, or, the Unbearable Closure of Being: "Modernist technology is 'transparent' in the sense of retaining the illusion of an insight into 'how the machine works'; that is to say, the screen of the interface was supposed to allow the user direct access to the machine behind the screen; the user was supposed to 'grasp' its workings - in ideal conditions, even to reconsturct it rationally. The postmodernist 'transparency' designates almost the exact opposite of this attitude of analytical global planning: the interface screen is supposed to conceal the workings of the machine, and to simulate our everyday experience as faithfully as possible [..] digital machinery 'behind the screen' retreats into total impenetrability, even invisibility."    


[film] 1993 In John McTiernan's Last Action Hero, Jack Slater / Arnold Schwarzenegger appears in 3 'realities': in the movie, in a movie inside the movie, and on the movie opening with his real wife Maria. Arnie serves also as an executive producer.  


[film] 1990 In Paul Verhoeven's Total Recall, the construction worker, Douglas Quaid (Arnold Schwarzenegger), spends his savings on a "mind vacation" to Mars simulated in a computer. Instead of just living out a dream, Quaid realises that his dreams of Mars are remnants of erased memory.  


[lit] 1970 Alvin Toffler's book Future Shock proposes that society is undergoing an enormous structural change, a revolution from an industrial society to a "super-industrial society". The accelerated rate of technological and social change is about to overwhelm people and leave them disconnected, suffering from "shattering stress and disorientation" - future shocked. The concept is later known as the singularity.  


[phil] 1960 In the philosophy of mathematics, intuitionism is introduced as an approach to mathematics as the constructive mental activity of humans. Any mathematical object is considered to be a product of a construction of a mind, and therefore, the existence of an object is equivalent to the possibility of its construction.    


[art] 1495 Leonardo da Vinci use the golden mean to define all the fundamental proportions of his painting of The Last Supper, from the dimensions of the table at which Christ and the disciples sat to the proportions of the walls and windows in the background. This proportion is used extensively by the Renaissance artists in their paintings and sculptures to achieve balance and beauty.